The body of the scorpion is comprised of the cephalothorax, where the head is located, and the abdomen. The head is covered by a hard bony material called the carapace, and it most often has two eyes at the top center. Additionally, there are between two and five pairs of lateral eyes at the fore corners of the carapace. Not all scorpions have eyes; cave and forest dwellers may not.
The pedipalps and chelicerae are the remaining parts of the cephalothorax. These are the pinchers or claws and the mouthparts, respectively. The pedipalps have sensors that detect vibrations.
The mesosoma and metasoma make up the scorpion‘s abdomen. In layman’s terms, these are the body and the tail. The body has an armor of bony substance, and most of the internal organs are located inside. The four pairs of legs are part of the body as are the underneath pectines, which detect vibrations on the ground. The legs are covered with hairs, as are the pedipalps of the head. These hairs are sensitive to touch.
The tail curves and ends with the telson, where the venom glands are located. At the end of the telson is the aculeus or stinger.
Adult scorpions may be as small as one inch, or up to eight inches in the case of the African scorpion. The giant desert hairy scorpions are typically the biggest in the U.S., growing up to five inches.
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